Seminar 3. Word formation

Лекция 1. Etymological Structure of the English Vocabulary.

Native Words. ^ Words of the common Indo-European word-stock. Words of the common Germanic word-stock. Peculiarities of native words.

Borrowings. Earlier Latin borrowings. Celtic borrowings. 7c. Latin Borrowings. Scandinavian borrowings. Norman-French Borrowings. Latin, Greek, Italian and Spanish borrowings of Seminar 3. Word formation the Renaissance period. The Enlightenment Period. Minor borrowings. Reasons for Borrowing Words and the Role of Borrowings.

Etymological Doublets and Triplets. Assimilation of Borrowings. Types of assimilation.

^ Лекция 2. Standard English.Regional varieties and social variation.

Standard English. Received Pronunciation. British English. British Variants. ScottishEnglish. Irish English. British Local dialects. Contemporary tendencies in Seminar 3. Word formation regional and social variations.

American English. Standard American English. Local dialects. Groups of Americanisms. Historic Americanisms. Proper Americanisms. American borrowings. Peculiarities of American English. Phonetic differences. Lexical differences. Grammar differences. Other regional varieties of English. Pidgins and Creoles.

^ Лекция 3. Word and Lexical Meaning.

Notion and meaning. Semantic Seminar 3. Word formation Structure of a Word. Denotational and connotational meaning. Evaluative connotations. Stylistic connotations. Emotive connotations. Cultural connotations. Denotational semantic structure. Connotational semantic structure. Semantic Structure of a polysemantic word. Types of Semantic Change. Specialization. Generalisation. Transfer of meaning. Metaphor. Metonymy. Hyperbole. Litotes. Amelioration of meaning. Pejoration of meaning.

^ Лекция 4. Polysemy Seminar 3. Word formation. Homonymy.

Semantic structure of a polysemantic word. Radiation. Concatenation. Split Polysemy. Semantic structure based on the common connotational meaningHomonyms. Classification of homonyms. Sources of homonymy

Лекция 5. Synonyms and antonyms. Paronyms.

Types of Synonyms. Ideographic synonyms. Stylistic synonyms. Absolute synonyms. Desynonymisation. Antonyms. Absolute and derivational antonyms. Lexical variants. Paronyms.

Лекция 6. Archaisms and Seminar 3. Word formation Neologisms

Archaisms and their stylistic value. Historisms, spheres of their usage. Obsolete words. Neologisms, their classification. Semantic neologisms. Transnomination neologisms. Proper neologisms. Ways of forming neologisms

^ Лекция 7. Word formation

Morphological structure of the word. Simple words. Derivatives. Compounds.

Major ways of word formation. Affixation. Classification of affixes. Semi-affixes. Valency of affixes Seminar 3. Word formation. Semantic overlapping. Compounding/composition. Classifications of compounds. Conversion. Shortening/clipping. Secondary ways of word formation. Sound interchange. Stress interchange. Sound imitation. Blending. Back formation.

Семинар 1. Etymological Structure of the English Vocabulary

Native words, their classification and characteristics.

Latin borrowings in English.

French borrowings and their influence on the English vocabulary Seminar 3. Word formation.

Celtic and Scandinavian borrowings.

Italian, German, Spanish and minor borrowings.

Assimilation of borrowings and types of assimilation.

Seminar 2. Regional varieties of English.

Standard English and RP.

Development of British dialects.

Standard American English and dialects.

Groups of Americanisms.

Peculiarities of American English compared to British English.

Seminar 3. Word formation

Affixation Seminar 3. Word formation. Classifications of suffixes.

Valency of suffixes.

Prefixes, their classification.

Compounding, classifications of compounds.

Conversion

Sound interchange, clipping, blending.

Distinctive stress, onomatopoeia, back formation

^ Seminar 4. Polysemy and Homonymy

Polysemy. Semantic structure of a polysemantic word.

Types of semantic structure.

Split polysemy.

Homonyms, their classifications.

Sources of homonymy

^ IV. ФОРМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ Познаний

А) Текущий контроль

Текущий контроль осуществляется Seminar 3. Word formation на семинарских упражнениях средством передней беседы по изученным темам и личного опроса студентов по теоретическим темам, также средством проверки без помощи других выполненных практических заданий по отдельным разделам курса.

Б) Итоговый контроль

Итоговый контроль осуществляется в форме зачета.

Зачетное задание содержит в себе:

1.Теоретическую часть (ответ на 2 вопроса из Seminar 3. Word formation лекционного курса по избранному билету)

2.Выполнение практического задания – лексическая нтерпретация предложенного текста.

^ V. ВОПРОСЫ, ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

А) ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ ПОДГОТОВКИ К ЗАЧЕТУ

General etymological survey of the English vocabulary.

Native words, their classification.

Latin borrowings in English.

French borrowings, their influence on the English vocabulary.

Celtic and Scandinavian borrowings Seminar 3. Word formation.

Italian, German, Spanish and minor borrowings.

Assimilation of borrowings.

British English.

American English.

Regional varieties of the English language.

Word and meaning.

Semantic structure of a word.

Types of a semantic change.

Polysemy, semantic structure of a polysemantic word.

Criteria of synonymy, types of synonyms.

Antonyms.

Homonyms, their classification.

Sources Seminar 3. Word formation of homonymy.

Morphological structure of the word.

Word formation. Affixation, conversion.

Word formation. Compounding, composition.

Shortening and minor ways of word formation.

Archaisms, historisms and obsolete words.

Neologisms. Ways of forming neologisms.

^ Б) ПЛАН ЛЕКСИЧЕСКОГО АНАЛИЗА ТЕКСТА

I. ETYMOLOGY

1. Give examples of native words of the common Indo-European word Seminar 3. Word formation-stock (cognates in Latin, Greek, German, Russian) and the common Germanic word-stock (cognates in Gothic, German, etc.), characterize their peculiarities.

2. Give examples of borrowings, etymological hybrids and doublets. Characterize them according to their origin (source) and degree of assimilation. Find international words.

3. Try to find archaisms, historisms or neologisms Seminar 3. Word formation. Characterize them according to the way of formation.

^ II. MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS

1. Analyze several words on three levels:

a) on the morphemic level – number of morphemes, their types, free and bound morphemes, root words, derived and compound words;

b) on the derivational level – types of stems, simplified stems, roots Seminar 3. Word formation equal to stems;

c) on the Immediate Constituents level, revealing the morphological motivation of words.

^ III. WORD BUILDING

1. Give examples of words formed through affixation, characterize prefixes and suffixes according to their origin, meaning, type (convertive or non-convertive), productivity, frequency, stylistic reference, emotive charge, valency, part-of-speech meaning.

2. Give examples Seminar 3. Word formation of compound words, characterize them according to the type of composition, idiomaticity, the way of joining components.

3. Find examples of words formed through conversion, characterize conversion pairs according to the main points of difference and similarity between the members of a pair; semantic relationship between them Seminar 3. Word formation; direction of derivation.

4. Characterize examples of other ways of word-building; shortening, blending, back-formation, onomatopoeia, distinctive stress and sound interchange.

^ IV. SEMASIOLOGY

1. Find several (5-6) lexical units with different types and degrees of motivation.

2. Point out instances of semantic change (widening, narrowing, degradation, amelioration of meaning). Characterize different cases of semantic transfer Seminar 3. Word formation (metaphor, metonymy, etc.).

3. Point out polysemantic words, characterize their lexico-semantic variants. Supply some words in the text with homonyms, speak on their source, type, degree.

4. Define the type and source of synonyms to some words in the text.

5. Find homonyms to several words from the text Seminar 3. Word formation, define their source and types.

^ В) ПРИМЕРНЫЙ ТЕКСТ ДЛЯ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКОГО АНАЛИЗА

THE LONGEST JOURNEY

Freeing migration could enrich humanity even more than freeing trade. But only if the social and political costs are contained.

«WITH two friends I started a journey to Greece, the most horrendous of all journeys. It had Seminar 3. Word formation all the details of a nightmare: barefoot walking in rough roads, risking death in the dark, police dogs hunting us, drinking water from the rain pools in the road and a rude awakening at gunpoint from the police under a bridge. My parents were terrified and decided that it would Seminar 3. Word formation be better to pay someone to hide me in the back of a car."

This 16-year-old Albanian high-school drop-out, desperate to leave his impoverished country for the nirvana of clearing tables in an Athens restaurant, might equally well have been a Mexican heading for Texas or an Seminar 3. Word formation Algerian youngster sneaking into France. He had the misfortune to be born on the wrong side of a line that now divides the world: the line between those whose passports allow them to move and settle reasonably freely across the richer world's borders, and those who Seminar 3. Word formation can do so only hidden in the back of a truck, and with forged papers.

Tearing down that divide would be one of the fastest ways to boost global economic growth. The gap between labour's rewards in the poor world and the rich, even for something as menial as Seminar 3. Word formation clearing tables, dwarfs the gap between the prices of traded goods from different parts of the world. The potential gains from liberalising migration therefore dwarf those from removing barriers to world trade. But those gains can be мейд only at great political cost. Countries rarely welcome strangers Seminar 3. Word formation into their midst.

^ ПРИМЕРНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ ТЕКСТА

The text under consideration/analysis is presumably a passage from the article written in Standard English. I have not noticed any Americanisms or features pointing to other regional varieties of English. The style is literary, though the text contains an example of a word belonging to colloquial Seminar 3. Word formation style: a drop-out.

^ I. ETYMOLOGY

From the point of view of etymology the text presents a certain interest. It abounds in borrowed words.

There are earlier Latin borrowings such as school, line, border, bridge, Latin-French borrowings table, fortune, there are also words borrowed by many languages Seminar 3. Word formation which became international words: global, migration, political, liberalise.

Among French borrowings there are completely assimilated Norman-French borrowings which are not felt as such: e.g. rich, country, and later French borrowings that are not completely assimilated: phonetically: e.g. police; graphically and phonetically: journey, restaurant).

The word Seminar 3. Word formation paper deserves a particular interest. It is derived from Fr. Papier, which, in its turn, comes from Lat. papyrus, and the latter was borrowed from Greek (Gr. Papyrus). Thus, the source of borrowing (the language from which the word was taken into English) is French, and the origin of borrowing (the language Seminar 3. Word formation to which the word may be traced) is Greek.

………………… (borrowings from other languages are analysed in the same way).

As far as native words are concerned, I can name the following examples of native words of the common Germanic word-stock : fast, the cognate of which may be Seminar 3. Word formation found in Gothic (G. fest), all, having cognates in Gothic (all) and Old Norwegian (ON allr), death, old, water, world, roads and many more.

…………………. (other groups of native words).

An instance of etymological doublets can be exemplified by the word road: there is a pair of etymological doublets in the Seminar 3. Word formation text: road - raid.

^ II. MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS

For the morphemic analysis I have chosen the following words:

Most, nirvana – one-morphemic root words consisting of free morphemes,

Details - a two-morphemic word consisting of a root morpheme detail and a derivational morpheme –s, used to form plural

Analysis into Seminar 3. Word formation the immediate constituents. /See example from the lecture/

( un - gentlemanly

Comparing the word with other utterances we recognize the morpheme un- as a negative prefix (compare unnatural, unfortunate, uncertain) and the morpheme gentlemanly. Thus at the first cut of the analysis we obtain the bound negative morpheme un- and the free Seminar 3. Word formation morpheme gentlemanly. At the second cut we obtain the following immediate constituents: the noun stem gentleman- which occurs in other utterances and the suffix -ly with the meaning “having the quality of the person denoted by the stem” (compare womanly, masterly, soldierly). The third cut is an adjective Seminar 3. Word formation stem gentle- (a similar pattern is observed in nobleman) and -man which may be classified as a semi-affix)

^ III. WORD BUILDING

Now I would like to analyse the ways of world building used in the text.

The word Impoverished is an affixational derivative consisting of four bound Seminar 3. Word formation morphemes,- pover- is a derived stem, im- is a negative prefix of Romanic origin, -ish is a derivational verb-forming suffix, and –ed is a functional suffix.

Another example of an affixational derivative – youngster( a root morpheme young-, and a semi-affix having a derogatory meaning –ster).

High-school is a Seminar 3. Word formation simple compound. There seem to be no examples of derivational compounds in the text under consideration.

There are also words formed by means of other ways of word formation:

Conversion : started – a start, rain – to rain, to clear – clear, to drop out - a drop-out, back –to back- the Seminar 3. Word formation back

^ IV. SEMASIOLOGY

Let’s move on to the level of semasiology. In the text the following examples of semantic change may be found:

Widening (table, paper), narrowing, degradation, amelioration of meaning .

There is also a case of a semantic transfer, it can be demonstrated at the example of … (metaphor, metonymy, etc Seminar 3. Word formation.).

The text contasins numerous polysemantic words:

Pool, papers, gap, good etc. Let’s consider lexico-semantic variants of the word table (стол, таблица, еда, плато, доска.)

As far as homonymy is concerned, I can give the following homonymic pairs : rain – reign; these are homophones, according to another Seminar 3. Word formation classification - partial lexico-grammatical homonyms since they coincide only in some forms: compare the paradigms rain –rains- rain’s – rains’ and reign- reigns- reigning- reigned).

to tear –a tear (is to be analysed in the same way),.

In the text we can find the following synonyms: ^ Decide – be desperate to. These Seminar 3. Word formation are stylistic synonyms.

Gap – line – border. This is an example of ideographic synonyms.

Horrendous –terrible – horrible – awful. These are ideographic synonyms with a synonymic dominant awful. The synonymic pair horrendous – awful can serve as an example of stylistic synonyms (poetic - neutral).

Also: Strangers- immigrants – foreigners – newcomers, misfortune – trouble – difficulty Seminar 3. Word formation- misery.

^ VII.Перечень РЕКОМЕНДУЕМОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

Основная литература

Э.М. Дубенец. Modern English Lexicology. Theory and Practice /Лексикология современного британского языка: лекции и семинары. Пособие для студентов гуманитарных вузов. (на англ. яз.) – М,: «Глосса-Пресс», 2002. – 192 с.

Т. А. Ненашева “Seminars in English lexicology” - Учебно-методическое пособие. Н.Новгород, 2007.

Douglas Harper. On Seminar 3. Word formation-line dictionary of etymology.

Дополнительная литература

I.V. Arnold. The English World /Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного британского языка: Учеб. Для ин-тов и ф-тов иностр. Яз. (на англ. яз.) –М.: «Высш школа», 1986. – 196 с.

G. B. Antrushina, O.V. Afanasyeva, N.N. Morozova. English Lexicology/ Г.Б.Антрушина Seminar 3. Word formation, О.В.Афанасьева, Н.Н.Морозова. Лексикология британского языка. Учебное пособие для пед. Ин-тов и ф-тов иностр. языков (на англ. яз.): М., «Высшая школа», 1985.–223 с.

R.S.Ginzburg, S.S.Khiedekel etc. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. и др.: Лексикология Seminar 3. Word formation британского языка (на англ. яз.) – М. « Высшая школа», 1966. – 275 c.

David Christal. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge., 1995. – 489 c.

This course of lexicology which forms a part of the curriculum for the English sections of linguistic departments of teacher-training colleges Seminar 3. Word formation is intended for students of the third year of the day department. It includes 15 lectures and 12 seminars which cover the main themes of Modern English lexicology: word-building, semantic changes, phraseology, borrowings, semasiology, neology, lexicography. The material for seminars includes topics to be discussed, test questions and lexical units to be Seminar 3. Word formation analysed. Lexical units for the analysis were chosen mainly among neologisms. There is also a brief list of recommended literature.

The aim of the course is to teach students to be word-conscious, to be able to guess the meaning of words they come across from Seminar 3. Word formation the meanings of morphemes, to be able to recognise the origin of this or that lexical unit.

Содержание:

Lexicology

Language units

Word-building

Affixation

Compound words

Conversion

Substantivation

«Stone wall» combinations

Abbreviations

Secondary ways of word-building

Semantic changes

Specialisation

Generalisation

Metaphor and metonymy

Phraseology

Ways of forming phraseological units

Semantic classification of phraseological units

Structural classification of phraseological units

Syntactical classification of phraseological units

Borrowings

Classification of borrowings according to the Seminar 3. Word formation borrowed aspect

Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation

Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they were borrowed.

Romanic borrowings/ Latin, French, Italian, Spanish/.

Germanic borrowings /Scandinavian, German, Holland/ .

Russian borrowings.

Etymological doublets.

Semasiology.

Word-meaning.

Lexical meaning-notion.

Polysemy.

Homonyms.

Synonyms .

Antonyms Seminar 3. Word formation .

Local varieties of English.

British and American English.

Archaisms.

Neologisms.

Lexicography.

LEXICOLOGY(lecture 1)

The term «lexicology» is of Greek origin / from «lexis» - «word» and «logos» - «science»/ . Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups.

The term «vocabulary» is used to denote Seminar 3. Word formation the system of words and word-groups that the language possesses.

The term «word» denotes the main lexical unit of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the Seminar 3. Word formation smallest unit of a language which can stand alone as a complete utterance.

The term «word-group» denotes a group of words which exists in the language as a ready-made unit, has the unity of meaning, the unity of syntactical function, e.g. the word-group «as Seminar 3. Word formation loose as a goose» means «clumsy» and is used in a sentence as a predicative / He is as loose as a goose/.

Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary, the origin of words and word-groups, their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning Seminar 3. Word formation. In this case it is called historical lexicology.

Another branch of lexicology is called descriptive and studies the vocabulary at a definite stage of its development.

LANGUAGE UNITS

The main unit of the lexical system of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning Seminar 3. Word formation is a word. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest language unit which can stand alone as a complete utterance.

A word, however, can be divided into smaller sense units - morphemes. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful language unit. The morpheme consists of a class Seminar 3. Word formation of variants, allomorphs, which are either phonologically or morphologically conditioned, e.g. please, pleasant, pleasure.

Morphemes are divided into two large groups: lexical morphemes and grammatical (functional) morphemes. Both lexical and grammatical morphemes can be free and bound. Free lexical morphemes are roots of words which express the Seminar 3. Word formation lexical meaning of the word, they coincide with the stem of simple words. Free grammatical morphemes are function words: articles, conjunctions and prepositions ( the, with, and).

Bound lexical morphemes are affixes: prefixes (dis-), suffixes (-ish) and also blocked (unique) root morphemes (e.g. Fri-day, cran-berry Seminar 3. Word formation). Bound grammatical morphemes are inflexions (endings), e.g. -s for the Plural of nouns, -ed for the Past Indefinite of regular verbs, -ing for the Present Participle, -er for the Comparative degree of adjectives.

In the second half of the twentieth century the English wordbuilding system was enriched by creating so called Seminar 3. Word formation splinters which scientists include in the affixation stock of the Modern English wordbuilding system. Splinters are the result of clipping the end or the beginning of a word and producing a number of new words on the analogy with the primary word-group. For example, there are many words Seminar 3. Word formation formed with the help of the splinter mini- (apocopy produced by clipping the word «miniature»), such as «miniplane», «minijet», «minicycle», «minicar», «miniradio» and many others. All of these words denote obects of smaller than normal dimensions.

On the analogy with «mini-» there appeared the splinter «maxi»- (apocopy produced Seminar 3. Word formation by clipping the word «maximum»), such words as «maxi-series», «maxi-sculpture», «maxi-taxi» and many others appeared in the language.

When European economic community was organized quite a number of neologisms with the splinter Euro- (apocopy produced by clipping the word «European») were coined, such as: «Euratom» «Eurocard», «Euromarket Seminar 3. Word formation», «Europlug», «Eurotunnel» and many others. These splinters are treated sometimes as prefixes in Modern English.

There are also splinters which are formed by means of apheresis, that is clipping the beginning of a word. The origin of such splinters can be variable, e.g. the splinter Seminar 3. Word formation «burger» appeared in English as the result of clipping the German borrowing «Hamburger» where the morphological structure was the stem «Hamburg» and the suffix -er. However in English the beginning of the word «Hamburger» was associated with the English word «ham», and the end of the word «burger» got the meaning Seminar 3. Word formation «a bun cut into two parts». On the analogy with the word «hamburger» quite a number of new words were coined, such as: «baconburger», «beefburger», «cheeseburger», «fishburger» etc.

The splinter «cade» developed by clipping the beginning of the word «cavalcade» which is of Latin origin. In Latin the verb Seminar 3. Word formation with the meaning «to ride a horse» is «cabalicare» and by means of the inflexion -ata the corresponding Participle is formed. So the element «cade» is a combination of the final letter of the stem and the inflexion. The splinter «cade» serves to form nouns with the Seminar 3. Word formation meaning «connected with the procession of vehicles denoted by the first component», e.g. «aircade» - «a group of airplanes accompanying the plane of a VIP» , «autocade» - «a group of automobiles escorting the automobile of a VIP», «musicade» - «an orchestra participating in a procession».

In the seventieths of the twentieth Seminar 3. Word formation century there was a political scandal in the hotel «Watergate» where the Democratic Party of the USA had its pre-election headquarters. Republicans managed to install bugs there and when they were discovered there was a scandal and the ruling American government had to resign. The name «Watergate» acquired the meaning «a Seminar 3. Word formation political scandal», «corruption». On the analogy with this word quite a number of other words were formed by using the splinter «gate» (apheresis of the word «Watergate»), such as: «Irangate», »Westlandgate», »shuttlegate», »milliongate» etc. The splinter «gate» is added mainly to Proper names: names of people with whom the Seminar 3. Word formation scandal is connected or a geographical name denoting the place where the scandal occurred.

The splinter «mobile» was formed by clipping the beginning of the word «automobile» and is used to denote special types of automobiles, such as: «artmobile», «bookmobile», «snowmobile», «tourmobile» etc.

The splinter «napper Seminar 3. Word formation» was formed by clipping the beginning of the word «kidnapper» and is used to denote different types of crimesters, such as : «busnapper», «babynapper», «dognapper» etc. From such nouns the corresponding verbs are formed by means of backformation, e.g. «to busnap», «to babynap», «to dognap».

The splinter «omat» was Seminar 3. Word formation formed by clipping the beginning of the word «automat» (a cafe in which meals are provided in slot-machines). The meaning «self-service» is used in such words as «laundromat», «cashomat» etc.

Another splinter «eteria» with the meaning «self-service» was formed by clipping the beginning of the word «cafeteria». By Seminar 3. Word formation means of the splinter «eteria» the following words were formed: «groceteria», «booketeria», «booteteria» and many others.

The splinter «quake» is used to form new words with the meaning of «shaking», «agitation». This splinter was formed by clipping the beginning of the word «earthquake». Ther following words were formed Seminar 3. Word formation with the help of this splinter: «Marsquake», «Moonquake», «youthquake» etc.

The splinter «rama(ama)» is a clipping of the word «panorama» of Greek origin where «pan» means «all» and «horama» means «view». In Modern English the meaning «view» was lost and the splinter «rama» is used in advertisements Seminar 3. Word formation to denote objects of supreme quality, e.g. «autorama» means «exhibition-sale of expensive cars», «trouserama» means «sale of trousers of supreme quality» etc.

The splinter «scape» is a clipping of the word «landscape» and it is used to form words denoting different types of landscapes, such as: «moonscape», «streetscape Seminar 3. Word formation», «townscape», «seascape» etc.

Another case of splinters is «tel» which is the result of clipping the beginning of the word «hotel». It serves to form words denoting different types of hotels, such as: «motel» (motor-car hotel), «boatel» (boat hotel), «floatel» (a hotel on water, floating), «airtel» (airport Seminar 3. Word formation hotel) etc.

The splinter «theque» is the result of clipping the beginning of the word «apotheque» of Greek origin which means in Greek «a store house». In Russian words: «библиотека», «картотека», «фильмотека» the element «тека» corresponding to the English «theque» preserves the meaning of storing something which is expressed Seminar 3. Word formation by the first component of the word. In English the splinter «theque» is used to denote a place for dancing, such as: «discotheque», «jazzotheque».

The splinter «thon» is the result of clipping the beginning of the word «marathon». «Marathon» primarily was the name of a battle-field in Greece, forty Seminar 3. Word formation miles from Athens, where there was a battle between the Greek and the Persian. When the Greek won a victory a Greek runner was sent to Athens to tell people about the victory. Later on the word «Marathon» was used to denote long-distance competitions in running. The splinter Seminar 3. Word formation «thon(athon)» denotes «something continuing for a long time», «competition in endurance» e.g. «dancathon», «telethon», «speakathon», «readathon», «walkathon», «moviethon», «swimathon», «talkathon», «swearthon» etc.

Splinters can be the result of clipping adjectives or substantivized adjectives. The splinter «aholic» (holic) was formed by clipping the beginning of the word «alcoholic» of Seminar 3. Word formation Arabian origin where «al» denoted «the», «koh’l» - «powder for staining lids». The splinter «(a)holic» means «infatuated by the object expressed by the stem of the word» , e.g. «bookaholic», «computerholic», «coffeeholic», «cheesaholic», «workaholic» and many others.

The splinter «genic» formed by clipping the beginning of the Seminar 3. Word formation word «photogenic» denotes the notion «suitable for something denoted by the stem», e.g. «allergenic», «cardiogenic», «mediagenic», «telegenic» etc.

As far as verbs are concerned it is not typical of them to be clipped that is why there is only one splinter to be used for forming new verbs Seminar 3. Word formation in this way. It is the splinter «cast» formed by clipping the beginning of the verb «broadcast». This splinter was used to form the verbs «telecast» and «abroadcast».

Splinters can be called pseudomorphemes because they are neither roots nor affixes, they are more or less artificial. In English there Seminar 3. Word formation are words which consist of two splinters, e.g. «telethon», therefore it is more logical to call words with splinters in their structure «compound-shortened words consisting of two clippings of words».

Splinters have only one function in English: they serve to change the lexical meaning of the Seminar 3. Word formation same part of speech, whereas prefixes and suffixes can also change the part-of-speech meaning , e.g. the prefix «en-» and its allomorph «em» can form verbs from noun and adjective stems («embody», «enable», «endanger»), «be-» can form verbs from noun and adjective stems («becloud», «benumb»), «post-» and «pre-» can Seminar 3. Word formation form adjectives from noun stems («pre-election campaign», «post-war events»). The main function of suffixes is to form one part of speech from another part of speech, e.g. «-er», «-ing», «-ment» form nouns from verbal stems («teacher», «dancing», «movement»), «-ness», «-ity» are used to form nouns from adjective Seminar 3. Word formation stems («clannishnes», «marginality»).

According to the nature and the number of morphemes constituting a word there are different structural types of words in English: simple, derived, compound, compound-derived.

Simple words consist of one root morpheme and an inflexion (in many cases the inflexion is zero), e.g. «seldom Seminar 3. Word formation», «chairs», «longer», «asked».

Derived words consist of one root morpheme, one or several affixes and an inlexion, e.g. «deristricted», «unemployed».

Compound words consist of two or more root morphemes and an inflexion, e.g. «baby-moons», «wait-and-see (policy)».

Compound-derived words consist of two or more Seminar 3. Word formation root morphemes, one or more affixes and an inflexion, e.g. «middle-of-the-roaders», «job-hopper».

When speaking about the structure of words stems also should be mentioned. The stem is the part of the word which remains unchanged throughout the paradigm of the word, e.g. the Seminar 3. Word formation stem «hop» can be found in the words: «hop», «hops», «hopped», «hopping». The stem «hippie» can be found in the words: «hippie», «hippies», «hippie’s», «hippies’». The stem «job-hop» can be found in the words : «job-hop», «job-hops», «job-hopped», «job-hopping».

So stems, the same as Seminar 3. Word formation words, can be simple, derived, compound and compound-derived. Stems have not only the lexical meaning but also grammatical (part-of-speech) meaning, they can be noun stems («girl» in the adjective «girlish»), adjective stems («girlish» in the noun «girlishness»), verb stems («expell» in the noun «expellee») etc. They Seminar 3. Word formation differ from words by the absence of inflexions in their structure, they can be used only in the structure of words.

Sometimes it is rather difficult to distinguish between simple and derived words, especially in the cases of phonetic borrowings from other languages and of native Seminar 3. Word formation words with blocked (unique) root morphemes, e.g. «perestroika», «cranberry», «absence» etc.

As far as words with splinters are concerned it is difficult to distinguish between derived words and compound-shortened words. If a splinter is treated as an affix (or a semi-affix) the word can be called Seminar 3. Word formation derived , e.g.-, «telescreen», «maxi-taxi» , «shuttlegate», «cheeseburger». But if the splinter is treated as a lexical shortening of one of the stems , the word can be called compound-shortened word formed from a word combination where one of the components was shortened, e.g. «busnapper» was formed from « bus kidnapper», «minijet Seminar 3. Word formation» from «miniature jet».

In the English language of the second half of the twentieth century there developed so called block compounds, that is compound words which have a uniting stress but a split spelling, such as «chat show», «pinguin suit» etc. Such compound words can be easily Seminar 3. Word formation mixed up with word-groups of the type «stone wall», so called nominative binomials. Such linguistic units serve to denote a notion which is more specific than the notion expressed by the second component and consists of two nouns, the first of which is an attribute to the second Seminar 3. Word formation one. If we compare a nominative binomial with a compound noun with the structure N+N we shall see that a nominative binomial has no unity of stress. The change of the order of its components will change its lexical meaning, e.g. «vid kid» is «a kid Seminar 3. Word formation who is a video fan» while «kid vid» means «a video-film for kids» or else «lamp oil» means «oil for lamps» and «oil lamp» means «a lamp which uses oil for burning».

Among language units we can also point out word combinations of different structural types of idiomatic and Seminar 3. Word formation non-idiomatic character, such as «the first fiddle», «old salt» and «round table», «high road». There are also sentences which are studied by grammarians.

Thus, we can draw the conclusion that in Modern English the following language units can be mentioned: morphemes, splinters, words, nominative binomials, non-idiomatic and idiomatic Seminar 3. Word formation word-combinations, sentences.

WORDBUILDING(lecture 3)

Word-building is one of the main ways of enriching vocabulary. There are four main ways of word-building in modern English: affixation, composition, conversion, abbreviation. There are also secondary ways of word-building: sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blends, back formation Seminar 3. Word formation.

AFFIXATION

Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.

Suffixation.

The main function of suffixes in Modern English is to Seminar 3. Word formation form one part of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. ( e.g. «educate» is a verb, «educatee» is a noun, and « music» is a noun, «musicdom» is also a noun) .

There are different classifications of suffixes Seminar 3. Word formation :

1. Part-of-speech classification. Suffixes which can form different parts of speech are given here :

a) noun-forming suffixes, such as : -er (criticizer), -dom (officialdom), -ism (ageism),

b) adjective-forming suffixes, such as : -able (breathable), less (symptomless), -ous (prestigious),

c) verb-forming suffixes, such as -ize (computerize) , -ify (micrify Seminar 3. Word formation),

d) adverb-forming suffixes , such as : -ly (singly), -ward (tableward),

e) numeral-forming suffixes, such as -teen (sixteen), -ty (seventy).

2. Semantic classification . Suffixes changing the lexical meaning of the stem can be subdivided into groups, e.g. noun-forming suffixes can denote:

a) the agent of the action, e Seminar 3. Word formation.g. -er (experimenter), -ist (taxist), -ent (student),

b) nationality, e.g. -ian (Russian), -ese (Japanese), -ish (English),

c) collectivity, e.g. -dom (moviedom), -ry (peasantry, -ship (readership), -ati ( literati),

d) diminutiveness, e.g. -ie (horsie), -let (booklet), -ling (gooseling), -ette (kitchenette),

e) quality, e.g. -ness (copelessness), -ity (answerability Seminar 3. Word formation).

3. Lexico-grammatical character of the stem. Suffixes which can be added to certain groups of stems are subdivided into:

a) suffixes added to verbal stems, such as : -er (commuter), -ing (suffering), - able (flyable), -ment (involvement), -ation (computerization),

b) suffixes added to noun stems, such as : -less (smogless), ful (roomful Seminar 3. Word formation), -ism (adventurism), -ster (pollster), -nik (filmnik), -ish (childish),

c) suffixes added to adjective stems, such as : -en (weaken), -ly (pinkly), -ish (longish), -ness (clannishness).

4. Origin of suffixes. Here we can point out the following groups:

a) native (Germanic), such as -er,-ful, -less, -ly.

b) Romanic, such as : -tion, -ment, -able Seminar 3. Word formation, -eer.

c) Greek, such as : -ist, -ism, -ize.

d) Russian, such as -nik.

5. Productivity. Here we can point out the following groups:

a) productive, such as : -er, -ize, --ly, -ness.

b) semi-productive, such as : -eer, -ette, -ward.

c) non-productive , such as : -ard (drunkard), -th (length).

Suffixes can be Seminar 3. Word formation polysemantic, such as : -er can form nouns with the following meanings : agent,doer of the action expressed by the stem (speaker), profession, occupation (teacher), a device, a tool (transmitter). While speaking about suffixes we should also mention compound suffixes which are added to the stem at Seminar 3. Word formation the same time, such as -ably, -ibly, (terribly, reasonably), -ation (adaptation from adapt).

There are also disputable cases whether we have a suffix or a root morpheme in the structure of a word, in such cases we call such morphemes semi-suffixes, and words with such suffixes can be classified either Seminar 3. Word formation as derived words or as compound words, e.g. -gate (Irangate), -burger (cheeseburger), -aholic (workaholic) etc.

Prefixation

Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In English it is characteristic for forming verbs. Prefixes are more independent than suffixes. Prefixes can be classified according Seminar 3. Word formation to the nature of words in which they are used : prefixes used in notional words and prefixes used in functional words. Prefixes used in notional words are proper prefixes which are bound morphemes, e.g. un- (unhappy). Prefixes used in functional words are semi-bound morphemes Seminar 3. Word formation because they are met in the language as words, e.g. over- (overhead) ( cf over the table ).

The main function of prefixes in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. But the recent research showed that about twenty-five prefixes in Modern English form Seminar 3. Word formation one part of speech from another (bebutton, interfamily, postcollege etc).

Prefixes can be classified according to different principles :

1. Semantic classification :

a) prefixes of negative meaning, such as : in- (invaluable), non- (nonformals), un- (unfree) etc,

b) prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions, such as: de- (decolonize), re- (revegetation), dis- (disconnect),

c Seminar 3. Word formation) prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations, such as : inter- (interplanetary) , hyper- (hypertension), ex- (ex-student), pre- (pre-election), over- (overdrugging) etc.

2. Origin of prefixes:

a) native (Germanic), such as: un-, over-, under- etc.

b) Romanic, such as : in-, de-, ex-, re- etc.

c) Greek, such as : sym Seminar 3. Word formation-, hyper- etc.

When we analyze such words as : adverb, accompany where we can find the root of the word (verb, company) we may treat ad-, ac- as prefixes though they were never used as prefixes to form new words in English and were borrowed from Romanic languages together with words Seminar 3. Word formation. In such cases we can treat them as derived words. But some scientists treat them as simple words. Another group of words with a disputable structure are such as : contain, retain, detain and conceive, receive, deceive where we can see that re-, de-, con- act as prefixes and -tain, -ceive Seminar 3. Word formation can be understood as roots. But in English these combinations of sounds have no lexical meaning and are called pseudo-morphemes. Some scientists treat such words as simple words, others as derived ones.

There are some prefixes which can be treated as root morphemes by some scientists, e Seminar 3. Word formation.g. after- in the word afternoon. American lexicographers working on Webster dictionaries treat such words as compound words. British lexicographers treat such words as derived ones.

COMPOSITION

Composition is the way of wordbuilding when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. The structural unity Seminar 3. Word formation of a compound word depends upon : a) the unity of stress, b) solid or hyphonated spelling, c) semantic unity, d) unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. These are charachteristic features of compound words in all languages. For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable Seminar 3. Word formation. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on the first component), e.g. hard-cover, best-seller. We can also have a double stress in an English compound, with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component, e.g Seminar 3. Word formation. blood-vessel. The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses, e.g. snow-white,sky-blue. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphonated spelling.

Spelling in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling Seminar 3. Word formation even in the same text, e.g. war-ship, blood-vessel can be spelt through a hyphen and also with a break, iinsofar, underfoot can be spelt solidly and with a break. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound Seminar 3. Word formation words which are called block compounds, they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break, e.g. air piracy, cargo module, coin change, pinguin suit etc.

The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the Seminar 3. Word formation meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components, e.g. to ghostwrite, skinhead, brain-drain etc. In nonidiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong, e. g., airbus, to bloodtransfuse, astrodynamics etc.

English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. They are used in Seminar 3. Word formation a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically, e.g. These girls are chatter-boxes. «Chatter-boxes» is a predicative in the sentence and only the second component changes grammatically.

There are two characteristic features of English compounds:

a) Both components in an English compound Seminar 3. Word formation are free stems, that is they can be used as words with a distinctive meaning of their own. The sound pattern will be the same except for the stresses, e.g. «a green-house» and «a green house». Whereas for example in Russian compounds the stems are Seminar 3. Word formation bound morphemes, as a rule.

b) English compounds have a two-stem pattern, with the exception of compound words which have form-word stems in their structure, e.g. middle-of-the-road, off-the-record, up-and-doing etc. The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones.

WAYS Seminar 3. Word formation OF FORMING COMPOUND WORDS

Compound words in English can be formed not only by means of composition but also by means of :

a) reduplication, e.g. too-too, and also by means of reduplicatin combined with sound interchange , e.g. rope-ripe,

b) conversion from word-groups, e.g Seminar 3. Word formation. to micky-mouse, can-do, makeup etc,

c) back formation from compound nouns or word-groups, e.g. to bloodtransfuse, to fingerprint etc ,

d) analogy, e.g. lie-in ( on the analogy with sit-in) and also phone-in, brawn-drain (on the analogy with brain-drain) etc.

CLASSIFICATIONS Seminar 3. Word formation OF ENGLISH COMPOUNDS

1. According to the parts of speech compounds are subdivided into:

a) nouns, such as : baby-moon, globe-trotter,

b) adjectives, such as : free-for-all, power-happy,

c) verbs, such as : to honey-moon, to baby-sit, to henpeck,

d) adverbs, such as: downdeep, headfirst,

e) prepositions Seminar 3. Word formation, such as: into, within, f) numerals, such as : fifty-five.

2. According to the way components are joined together compounds are divided into:

a) neutral, which are formed by joining together two stems without any joining morpheme, e.g. ball-point, to windowshop,

b) morphological where components are joined by a Seminar 3. Word formation linking element : vowels «o» or «i» or the consonant «s», e.g. {«astrospace», «handicraft», «sportsman»),

c) syntactical where the components are joined by means of form-word stems, e.g. here-and-now, free-for-all., do-or-die.

3. According to their structure compounds are subdivided into:

a) compound Seminar 3. Word formation words proper which consist of two stems, e.g. to job-hunt, train-sick, go-go, tip-top ,

b) derivational compounds, where besides the stems we have affixes, e.g. ear-minded, hydro-skimmer,

c) compound words consisting of three or more stems, e.g. cornflower-blue, eggshell-thin Seminar 3. Word formation, singer-songwriter,

d) compound-shortened words, e.g. boatel, tourmobile, VJ-day, motocross, intervision, Eurodollar, Camford.

4. According to the relations between the components compound words are subdivided into :

a) subordinative compounds where one of the components is the semantic and the structural centre and the second component is Seminar 3. Word formation subordinate; these subordinative relations can be different:

with comparative relations, e.g. honey-sweet, eggshell-thin, with limiting relations, e.g. breast-high, knee-deep, with emphatic relations, e.g. dog-cheap, with objective relations, e.g. gold-rich, with cause relations, e.g. love-sick, with space relations Seminar 3. Word formation, e.g. top-heavy, with time relations, e.g. spring-fresh, with subjective relations, e.g. foot-sore etc

b) coordinative compounds where both components are semantically independent. Here belong such compounds when one person (object) has two functions, e.g. secretary-stenographer, woman-doctor, Oxbridge etc. Such compounds are Seminar 3. Word formation called additive. This group includes also compounds formed by means of reduplication, e.g. fifty-fifty, no-no, and also compounds formed with the help of rhythmic stems (reduplication combined with sound interchange) e.g. criss-cross, walkie-talkie.

5. According to the order of the components compounds are divided into Seminar 3. Word formation compounds with direct order, e.g. kill-joy, and compounds with indirect order, e.g. nuclear-free, rope-ripe .

CONVERSION

Conversion is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system. It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. The term «conversion» first appeared in the book Seminar 3. Word formation by Henry Sweet «New English Grammar» in 1891. Conversion is treated differently by different scientists, e.g. prof. A.I. Smirntitsky treats conversion as a morphological way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech by changing its paradigm, e.g. to form the verb «to Seminar 3. Word formation dial» from the noun «dial» we change the paradigm of the noun (a dial,dials) for the paradigm of a regular verb (I dial, he dials, dialed, dialing). A. Marchand in his book «The Categories and Types of Present-day English» treats conversion as a morphological-syntactical Seminar 3. Word formation word-building because we have not only the change of the paradigm, but also the change of the syntactic function, e.g. I need some good paper for my room. (The noun «paper» is an object in the sentence). I paper my room every year. (The verb «paper Seminar 3. Word formation» is the predicate in the sentence).

Conversion is the main way of forming verbs in Modern English. Verbs can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings because of that, e.g.

a) verbs have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting parts of a Seminar 3. Word formation human body e.g. to eye, to finger, to elbow, to shoulder etc. They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.g. to hammer, to machine-gun, to rifle, to nail,

b) verbs can denote an action characteristic of the living being Seminar 3. Word formation denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to crowd, to wolf, to ape,

c) verbs can denote acquisition, addition or deprivation if they are formed from nouns denoting an object, e.g. to fish, to dust, to peel, to paper,

d) verbs Seminar 3. Word formation can denote an action performed at the place denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to park, to garage, to bottle, to corner, to pocket,

e) verbs can denote an action performed at the time denoted by the noun from which they have been converted Seminar 3. Word formation e.g. to winter, to week-end .

Verbs can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e.g. to tame (to become or make tame) , to clean, to slim etc.

Nouns can also be formed by means of conversion Seminar 3. Word formation from verbs. Converted nouns can denote:

a) instant of an action e.g. a jump, a move,

b) process or state e.g. sleep, walk,

c) agent of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a help, a flirt, a scold ,

d) object Seminar 3. Word formation or result of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a burn, a find, a purchase,

e) place of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a drive, a stop, a Seminar 3. Word formation walk.

Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentaneous actions. In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as : to have, to get, to take etc., e.g. to have a try, to Seminar 3. Word formation give a push, to take a swim .

CRITERIA OF SEMANTIC DERIVATION

In cases of conversion the problem of criteria of semantic derivation arises : which of the converted pair is primary and which is converted from it. The problem was first analized by prof. A.I. Smirnitsky. Later on P.A. Soboleva Seminar 3. Word formation developed his idea and worked out the following criteria:

1. If the lexical meaning of the root morpheme and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide the word is primary, e.g. in cases pen - to pen, father - to father the nouns are names of an object and a living being Seminar 3. Word formation. Therefore in the nouns «pen» and «father» the lexical meaning of the root and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide. The verbs «to pen» and « to father» denote an action, a process therefore the lexico-grammatical meanings of the stems do not coincide with the Seminar 3. Word formation lexical meanings of the roots. The verbs have a complex semantic structure and they were converted from nouns.

2. If we compare a converted pair with a synonymic word pair which was formed by means of suffixation we can find out which of the pair is primary. This criterion Seminar 3. Word formation can be applied only to nouns converted from verbs, e.g. «chat» n. and «chat» v. can be compared with «conversation» - «converse».

3. The criterion based on derivational relations is of more universal character. In this case we must take a word-cluster of relative words to which the converted pair belongs. If Seminar 3. Word formation the root stem of the word-cluster has suffixes added to a noun stem the noun is primary in the converted pair and vica versa, e.g. in the word-cluster : хэнд n., хэнд v., handy, handful the derived words have suffixes added to a noun stem, that is Seminar 3. Word formation why the noun is primary and the verb is converted from it. In the word-cluster: dance n., dance v., dancer, dancing we see that the primary word is a verb and the noun is converted from it.

SUBSTANTIVIZATION OF ADJECTIVES

Some scientists (Yespersen, Kruisinga ) refer substantivization of Seminar 3. Word formation adjectives to conversion. But most scientists disagree with them because in cases of substantivization of adjectives we have quite different changes in the language. Substantivization is the result of ellipsis (syntactical shortening ) when a word combination with a semantically strong attribute loses its semantically weak noun (man, person etc), e.g Seminar 3. Word formation. «a grown-up person» is shortened to «a grown-up». In cases of perfect substantivization the attribute takes the paradigm of a countable noun , e.g. a criminal, criminals, a criminal’s (mistake) , criminals’ (mistakes). Such words are used in a sentence in the same function as nouns, e Seminar 3. Word formation.g. I am fond of musicals. (musical comedies).

There are also two types of partly substantivized adjectives:

those which have only the plural form and have the meaning of collective nouns, such as: sweets, news, empties, finals, greens,

those which have only the singular form and are used Seminar 3. Word formation with the definite article. They also have the meaning of collective nouns and denote a class, a nationality, a group of people, e.g. the rich, the English, the dead .

STONE WALL» COMBINATIONS.

The problem whether adjectives can be formed by means of conversion from nouns is the subject Seminar 3. Word formation of many discussions. In Modern English there are a lot of word combinations of the type , e.g. price rise, wage freeze, steel helmet, sand castle etc.

If the first component of such units is an adjective converted from a noun, combinations of this type are free word-groups Seminar 3. Word formation typical of English (adjective + noun). This point of view is proved by O. Yespersen by the following facts:

1. «Stone» denotes some quality of the noun «wall».

2. «Stone» stands before the word it modifies, as adjectives in the function of an attribute do in English.

3. «Stone» is used Seminar 3. Word formation in the Singular though its meaning in most cases is plural,and adjectives in English have no plural form.

4. There are some cases when the first component is used in the Comparative or the Superlative degree, e.g. the bottomest end of the scale.

5. The first component can have an adverb Seminar 3. Word formation which characterizes it, and adjectives are characterized by adverbs, e.g. a purely family gathering.

6. The first component can be used in the same syntactical function with a proper adjective to characterize the same noun, e.g. lonely bare stone houses.

7. After the first component the pronoun Seminar 3. Word formation «one» can be used instead of a noun, e.g. I shall not put on a silk dress, I shall put on a cotton one.

However Henry Sweet and some other scientists say that these criteria are not characterisitc of the majority of such units.

They consider the first component of such Seminar 3. Word formation units to be a noun in the function of an attribute because in Modern English almost all parts of speech and even word-groups and sentences can be used in the function of an attribute, e.g. the then president (an adverb), out-of-the-way Seminar 3. Word formation vilages (a word-group), a devil-may-care speed (a sentence).

There are different semantic relations between the components of «stone wall» combinations. E.I. Chapnik classified them into the following groups:

1. time relations, e.g. evening paper,

2. space relations, e.g. top floor,

3. relations between the object and Seminar 3. Word formation the material of which it is мейд, e.g. steel helmet,

4. cause relations, e.g. war orphan,

5. relations between a part and the whole, e.g. a crew member,

6. relations between the object and an action, e.g. arms production,

7. relations between the agent and an action e.g Seminar 3. Word formation. government threat, price rise,

8. relations between the object and its designation, e.g. reception hall,

9. the first component denotes the head, organizer of the characterized object, e.g. Clinton government, Forsyte family,

10. the first component denotes the field of activity of the second component, e.g. language teacher, psychiatry doctor,

11. comparative Seminar 3. Word formation relations, e.g. moon face,

12. qualitative relations, e.g. winter apples.

ABBREVIATION

In the process of communication words and word-groups can be shortened. The causes of shortening can be linguistic and extra-linguistic. By extra-linguistic causes changes in the life of people are meant. In Modern English Seminar 3. Word formation many new abbreviations, acronyms , initials, blends are formed because the tempo of life is increasing and it becomes necessary to give more and more information in the shortest possible time.

There are also linguistic causes of abbreviating words and word-groups, such as the demand of rhythm, which is satisfied Seminar 3. Word formation in English by monosyllabic words. When borrowings from other languages are assimilated in English they are shortened. Here we have modification of form on the basis of analogy, e.g. the Latin borrowing «fanaticus» is shortened to «fan» on the analogy with native words: man, pan, tan Seminar 3. Word formation etc.

There are two main types of shortenings : graphical and lexical.

Graphical abbreviations

Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening of words and word-groups only in written speech while orally the corresponding full forms are used. They are used for the economy of space and effort in writing.

The oldest group of Seminar 3. Word formation graphical abbreviations in English is of Latin origin. In Russian this type of abbreviation is not typical. In these abbreviations in the spelling Latin words are shortened, while orally the corresponding English equivalents are pronounced in the full form,e.g. for example (Latin exampli gratia Seminar 3. Word formation), a.m. - in the morning (ante meridiem), No - number (numero), p.a. - a year (per annum), d - penny (dinarius), lb - pound (libra), i. e. - that is (id est) etc.

Some graphical abbreviations of Latin origin have different English equivalents in different contexts, e.g. p.m. can be pronounced Seminar 3. Word formation «in the afternoon» (post meridiem) and «after death» (post mortem).

There are also graphical abbreviations of native origin, where in the spelling we have abbreviations of words and word-groups of the corresponding English equivalents in the full form. We have several semantic groups of them :

a) days of Seminar 3. Word formation the week, e.g. Mon - Monday, Tue - Tuesday etc

b) names of months, e.g. Apr - April, Aug - August etc.

c) names of counties in UK, e.g. Yorks - Yorkshire, Berks -Berkshire etc

d) names of states in USA, e.g. Ala - Alabama, Alas - Alaska etc.

e) names of address, e.g. Mr Seminar 3. Word formation., Mrs., Ms., Dr. etc.

f) military ranks, e.g. capt. -captain, col. - colonel, sgt - sergeant etc.

g) scientific degrees, e.g. B.A. - Bachelor of Arts, D.M. - Doctor of Medicine . ( Sometimes in scientific degrees we have abbreviations of Latin origin, e.g., M.B. - Medicinae Baccalaurus).

h Seminar 3. Word formation) units of time, length, weight, e.g. f. / ft -foot/feet, sec. - second, in. -inch, mg. - milligram etc.

The reading of some graphical abbreviations depends on the context, e.g. «m» can be read as: male, married, masculine, metre, mile, million, minute, «l.p.» can be read as Seminar 3. Word formation long-playing, low pressure.

Initial abbreviations

Initialisms are the bordering case between graphical and lexical abbreviations. When they appear in the language, as a rule, to denote some new offices they are closer to graphical abbreviations because orally full forms are used, e.g. J.V. - joint venture. When they are used Seminar 3. Word formation for some duration of time they acquire the shortened form of pronouncing and become closer to lexical abbreviations, e.g. BBC is as a rule pronounced in the shortened form.

In some cases the translation of initialisms is next to impossible without using special dictionaries. Initialisms are denoted Seminar 3. Word formation in different ways. Very often they are expressed in the way they are pronounced in the language of their origin, e.g. ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, United States) is given in Russian as АНЗУС, SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) was for a long time used in Russian as Seminar 3. Word formation СОЛТ, now a translation variant is used (ОСВ -Договор об ограничении стратегических вооружений). This type of initialisms borrowed into other languages is preferable, e.g. UFO - НЛО, CП - JV etc.

There are three types of initialisms in English:

a) initialisms with alphabetical reading, such as UK, BUP, CND etc

b) initialisms Seminar 3. Word formation which are read as if they are words, e.g. UNESCO, UNO, NATO etc.

c) initialisms which coincide with English words in their sound form, such initialisms are called acronyms, e.g. CLASS (Computor-based Laboratory for Automated School System).

Some scientists unite groups b) and c) into Seminar 3. Word formation one group which they call acronyms.

Some initialisms can form new words in which they act as root morphemes by different ways of wordbuilding:

a) affixation, e.g. AWALism, ex-rafer, ex- POW, to waafize, AIDSophobia etc.

b) conversion, e.g. to raff, to fly IFR (Instrument Flight Rules),

c) composition Seminar 3. Word formation, e.g. STOLport, USAFman etc.

d) there are also compound-shortened words where the first component is an initial abbreviation with the alphabetical reading and the second one is a complete word, e.g. A-bomb, U-pronunciation, V -day etc. In some cases the first component Seminar 3. Word formation is a complete word and the second component is an initial abbreviation with the alphabetical pronunciation, e.g. Three -Ds (Three dimensions) - стереофильм.

Abbreviations of words


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